awnless barnyard

Echinochloa colona
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard
Awnless barnyard seed detail
Grass
Basal
Simple
Brown
Green

Awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) is a low-growing or semi-upright plant (up to 1 m tall) with flower spikelets arranged in four irregular rows along the branches of its seed-heads. It usually has no significant awn on its seeds.

Common names 
Also known as: Bird's rice, Corn panic grass, Deccan grass, Jungle grass, Kalahari watergrass, Marsh grass, Millet rice, Pigeon millet, River grass,
Family 
Poaceae
Deciduous 
No
Flowering time 
Year round
Native/Exotic 
Exotic
Origin 
The origin of this species is obscure, and it is now widely naturalised throughout the tropical, sub-tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world.
Notifiable 
No
Council declaration 
SIL – Special Investigation List
Known distribution 

A very widely distributed grass that is most common throughout the northern and eastern parts of Australia. It is generally considered to be naturalised in Australia, however some herbaria are unsure of its status or consider it to be native. It is widespread throughout Queensland, New South Wales, the Northern Territory and the northern and north-western parts (i.e. the Kimberley and Pilbara regions) of Western Australia.

Habitat 

This species was introduced as a pasture plant and is now a widespread weed that is most commonly found on heavy soils or where flooding periodically occurs. It is known to infest crops, pastures, roadsides, gardens, footpaths,disturbed sites, waste areas, drains, ditches, swamps and waterways.

Impact and control methods 

Awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) is a common weed of crops, gardens, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas in the region. It also grows along waterways, on the margins of lakes and ponds, in swamps and wetlands, and in other damp habitats.

This species is ranked among the top 200 environmental weeds in south-eastern Queensland, and has invaded important natural vegetation including endangered swamp tea tree (Melaleuca tamariscina subsp. irbyana) thickets. It is also regarded as an environmental weed in other parts of Queensland and is a common weed of arid wetland areas in central Australia (i.e. in the Northern Territory and South Australia).

Similar species 

Awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) is very similar to common barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli ) and relatively similar to the native swamp barnyard grass (Echinochloa telmatophila ). These species can be distinguished by the following differences:

■awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) is a low-growing or semi-upright plant (up to 1 m tall) with flower spikelets arranged in four irregular rows along the branches of its seed-heads. It usually has no significant awn on its seeds.

■common barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli ) is a mostly upright plant (up to 1.5 m tall) with flower spikelets arranged in two irregular rows along the branches of its seed-heads. It usually has a short awn on its seeds, but this awn may occasionally be up to 50 mm long.

■swamp barnyard grass (Echinochloa telmatophila ) is a large and mostly upright plant (up to 2 m tall) with flower spikelets arranged in four irregular rows along the branches of its seed-heads. It has a long awn (15-40 mm long) on its seeds, which is either purplish or pinkish in colour.