badhara bush

Gmelina elliptica
Shrub
Opposite
Simple
Yellow
Green

Highly variable, thorny shrub or small tree, 2-4m tall (occasionally up to 10m). It has yellow, tubular flowers turning to a yellow, pear-shaped fruit.

Common names 
Also known as: asiatic beechberry, common bulang, oval-leafed gmelina, parrot's beak,
Family 
Lamiaceae
Deciduous 
No
Native/Exotic 
Exotic
Origin 
S.E.Asia
Notifiable 
No
State declaration 
Category 3 - Must not be distributed or disposed. This means it must not be released into the environment unless the distribution or disposal is authorised in a regulation or under a permit.
Council declaration 
As per State Declaration
Known distribution 

Only known infestations near Rockhampton.

Habitat 

Prefers subtropical forests. Occurs in dry, intermittently flowing water courses. It is a potential weed of wetter habitats throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Australia.

Habit 

Highly variable, thorny shrub or small tree, 2-4m tall (occasionally up to 10m).

Impact and control methods 

Forms dense thickets, shading out useful pasture species preventing stock movement and decreasing biodiversity

Stem and leaves 

Stems are yellowish or brownish white. Branches are armed with pairs of spines. Leaves are dark green above, paler below, in opposite pairs, usually with 1 of the pair smaller than the other. Leaves are generally ovate, 1-10cm long, 1.5-6cm wide, pointed at the apex. Younger leaves are 3-lobed, older leaves not lobed, with sparse hairs on undersides.

Flowers and fruits 

Flowers are yellow, tubular, generally around 5cm long. Fruit is yellow when ripe, pear-shaped, about 1.5cm across. Fruits have 4 chambers in which seed can be found, though usually only 2 chambers have fully developed seed.

Reproduction and dispersal 

Spread mainly by bird-dispersed seeds. Woody taproots can produce suckers, particularly after disturbance.