small leaved privet

Ligustrum sinense
Tree
Opposite
Simple
White
Cream
Green
Discoloured

A shrub or small tree with hairy younger stems and leaves. Its relatively small leaves (2-7 cm long and 1-3 cm wide) are borne in pairs along the stems. Its small white flowers have four petals and are produced in small branched clusters (4-11 cm long) at the tips of the stems. Its small rounded or egg-shaped fruit (4-6 mm long) turn bluish-black in colour when mature.

Common names 
Also known as: small leaved privet, Chinese privet, Chinese liguster, Chinese ligustrum, hedge privet, ligustrum, narrow-leaf privet, narrowleaf privet, small-leaf privet,
Family 
Oleaceae
Deciduous 
Yes
Flowering time 
Spring - Summer
Native/Exotic 
Exotic
Origin 
Native to China and south-eastern Asia (i.e. Taiwan, Laos and Vietnam).
Notifiable 
No
State declaration 
Category 3 - Must not be distributed or disposed. This means it must not be released into the environment unless the distribution or disposal is authorised in a regulation or under a permit.
Council declaration 
As per State Declaration
Known distribution 

This species is mainly naturalised in the coastal and sub-coastal districts of eastern Australia. It is most common in south-eastern Queensland and the coastal and sub-coastal regions of eastern New South Wales. Occasionally naturalised in the ACT and Victoria, and scattered in central and northern Queensland. Also recorded as naturalised on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Also naturalised in southern Africa, Argentina, New Zealand, on several Pacific Islands (e.g. Hawaii, Fiji, Guam, Tonga, American Samoa and Western Samoa) and in the southern and eastern parts of the USA.

Habitat 

Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is most commonly found in wetter tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. It is a particularly common weed of rainforest areas and waterways, but is also a weed of urban bushland, gullies, open woodlands, waste areas, disturbed sites and roadsides.

Habit 

A large shrub or a small tree usually growing less than 3 m tall, but occasionally reaching 4-5 m in height.

Impact and control methods 

Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is regarded as a significant environmental weed in New South Wales and Queensland, and as an environmental weed or potential environmental weed in Victoria and the ACT. This species causes widespread and significant environmental damage, and was recently listed as a priority environmental weed in seven Natural Resource Management regions. It is of most concern in south-eastern Queensland, where it is ranked among the top 25 most invasive plant species, and in eastern New South Wales.Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) commonly invades gullies, creeklines, watercourses, forest gaps and the margins of rainforests in eastern Australia, and tends to grow in more fertile soils. It forms dense thickets and its densely branching growth habit enables it to shade out other plants. It also germinates and grows relatively well in shady sites, giving it the ability to outcompete or suppress native vegetation living in the understorey of forests. Its tenacious root system also reduces the availability of water and nutrients for competing native species, and when the roots or stems are damaged or cut they sucker prolifically. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) will eventually come to dominate the shrub layer of an invaded habitat, thus altering species composition and natural community structure by choking out native plant species. This transformation alters the habitat available to native animals and stands of this weed may also grow sufficiently thick to hinder animal movement through bushland areas.Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is also a major environmental weed in other parts of the world and has been listed in the Global Invasive Species Database. It displaces the shrub layer of forests and woodlands in New Zealand, Argentina and south-eastern USA and also invades river and stream floodplains, lake shores, and the edges of swamps and marshes in the USA. Its invasiveness already threatens the survival of endangered species in the USA, such as the Miccosukee gooseberry (Ribes echinellum).

Stem and leaves 

The new growth of this plant (i.e. the younger stems and leaves) is finely hairy (i.e. pubescent). Younger stems are rounded (i.e. terete) and greenish in colour, while older stems turn greyish-brown as they mature. The leaves are egg-shaped in outline (i.e. ovate) to oval (i.e. elliptic) in shape and are borne on short stalks (i.e. petioles) 3-8 mm long. These leaves (2-7 cm long and 1-3 cm wide) are oppositely arranged on the stems, with entire or wavy (i.e. undulate)margins. They are usually densely hairy (i.e. pubescent), particularly on their undersides, and have pointed tips (i.e. acute to acuminate apices).

Flowers and fruits 

The small flowers are white or cream in colour, with four petals (2-5.5 mm long) that are fused together at the base (i.e. into a very short corolla tube). They also have four tiny sepals (1-1.5 mm long) and two stamens. These flowers are arranged in dense, branched clusters (4-11 cm long) at the tips of the branches (i.e. in terminal panicles). Each flower is borne on a short stalk (i.e. pedicel) 1-5 mm long. Flowering occurs mostly during late winter and spring, but may sometimes continue into the summer. The small berry-like fruit (actually drupes) are rounded (i.e. globular) or slightly egg-shaped (i.e. ovoid). These fruit (4-8 mm long) turn from green to black, bluish-black or purplish-black as they mature.

Reproduction and dispersal 

This species reproduces by seed, root suckers, and it also resprouts after its stems are deliberately cut or otherwise damaged.Its seeds are readily dispersed by fruit-eating (i.e. frugivorous) birds and other animals. They may also be spread by water or in dumped garden waste.

Similar species 

Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is very similar to broad-leaved privet (Ligustrum lucidum) and common privet (Ligustrum vulgare). It is also relatively similar to Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica). These species can be distinguished by the following differences: Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) has somewhat hairy (i.e. pubescent) younger stems and usually grows up to 3 m tall. Its relatively small leaves (2-7 cm long) have entire margins and are usually present year-round (i.e. it is evergreen).broad-leaved privet (Ligustrum lucidum) has hairless (i.e. glabrous) younger stems and grows up to 12 m or more tall. Its relatively large leaves (4-24 cm long) have entire margins and are present year-round (i.e. it is evergreen).common privet (Ligustrum vulgare) has hairless (i.e. glabrous) or finely hairy (i.e. puberulent) younger stems and grows up to 5 m tall. Its relatively small leaves (2-6 cm long) have entire margins and are often lost during winter (i.e. it is deciduous).Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) has hairless (i.e. glabrous) or slightly hairy (i.e. puberulent) younger stems and usually grows up to 2 m tall. Its moderately-sized leaves (3-7 cm long) have coarsely toothed (i.e. serrate) margins and are usually present year-round (i.e. it is evergreen). Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) may also be confused with native privet (Ligustrum australianum), which is present in northern and central Queensland. However, native privet (Ligustrum australianum ) has smaller flowers with petals only about 2 mm long. It is sometimes also confused with various native rainforest species when not in flower or fruit, including cheese tree (Glochidion ferdinandii) and many of the lilly-pilly's (Syzygium spp.).

Replacement species 
cheese tree (Glochidion ferdinandii); lilly-pilly's (Syzygium spp.)